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last revised 27/11/14


History and Context The Model
Sources Scenic Setting - The Story
Literature Creating the Scenery
Selected Links Botters
in the Zuderzeemuseum Enkhuizen
Creating the Staffage
Pictures of the finished model  NEW !

History and Context

Looking at old maps it is amazing to see how land and water intertwined once in the northern part of the Netherlands, Noord Holland and Friesland in particular. It is even more so, when one drives through Noord Holland and reminds oneself that this once was a patchwork of islands and shallow stretches of sea. The Dutch fought - and continue to fight - the sea and at the same time a good part of the populations lived off the sea. The Zuiderzee once was a vast bay of the North Sea, reaching deep into the country, nearly down to Amsterdam. It served as throughfare for transport and as a rich fishing resource. However, pressure on  the scarce land was high and the sea was a constant menace to the low-lying shores and islands. As part of their struggle against the sea, the Dutch dammed up the bay by a large dike, the Afsluitdijk, completed in 1933. This put an end to much of the fisheries. The already in its southern part brackish Zuidezee finally turned into a large freshwater lake, the Ijsselmeer.

Botter BU130
built 1875 in Spakenburg and registered at Bunschoten. Now
preserved at the Zuiderzeemuseum, Enkhuizen. Photographed in 2009

Over the course of history there have been various types of sailing fishing vessels with numerous local variants. The best-known is probably the Botter (and its larger variant Kwak). At one stage it was estimated that there were over 1000 in operation at the end of the 19th century. The places around the Zuiderzee with the most botters were Enkhuizen, Volendam/Edam, Monickendam, Marken, Bunschoten and Urk. Spakenburg was an important building place.

Man's tools to win a lifelihood constantly change and are being adapted to changing circumstances, new needs and fashions as well. Thus methods of fishing evolved in order to increase efficiency and in response to changes to the fishing grounds and other environmental circumstances that influenced the availability of the resource 'fish'. The history of the botter is not easy to trace as no artefacts have survived and artistic renderings are not so reliable bevore say the late 18th century. As with all small boats, they were built without any drawings well into the 20th century. The botter or its somewhat larger version the Kwak as we know it today developed over the past two hundred years.

Sizes vary, but a typical botter has a keel of about 34 feet long.


There are quite a number of comprehensive printed works on the botter and its history (see below). These include also drawings. Some original drawings are preserved in various museums in the Netherlands. However, like so many traditional small boats, botters were usually built without any drawings. The museums also preserve various model built from about the early 19th century onward. There are also surviving quite a number of original botters, the oldest being from the last quarter of the 19th century.

Botter MK53 (1919) from Marken, preserved in the Zuiderzeemuseum, Enkhuizen

These boats survived because they have been adapted as pleasure craft. Obviously a lot of concessions had to be made in this case to accomodate the modern leisure-boaters and therefore these boats are not useful for a reconstruction. In more recent years some of these have been reconverted into a state that is more like their original workday appearance. Also, from the end of the 19th century onward some botters had been built als pleasure craft for private owners. They usually deviate somewhat from the work boats and are often fitted with a cabin, as is found e.g. on boeiers.

The Zuiderzeemuseum in Enkhuizen preserves a late botter in its boathall. The Zuiderzeemuseum also has a large collection of ship- and boatmodels, including several botters. Some of the models appear to be contemporary, while others have been built in more recent times.

Botter models from the collection of the Zuiderzeemuseum

The Model

The model is based on the resin kit produced by Artitec in 1:90 (HO) scale. This company has developed a real mastery in casting complex and large resin parts. In addition to the hull, the kit contains castings for the mast and spars, for rigging blocks and, somewhat strangely perhaps, the taken-down sails. Of course, these kits are mainly meant as accessories for model railway layouts and people not knowing a lot about these craft. The kit also contains a small fret of etched parts, mainly for the ironwork of the rigging. While the etched parts are well made as such, they are for the most part not really useful for representing the forged ironwork. For instance, masthoops are, of course, flat in the horizontal direction, while they should really be short tubes. Other parts simply lack the needed plasticity. Hence most of the etched parts will not be used. Similarly, the cast rigging blocks will be replaced by home-made ones and 'real' sails will be made. I bought the kit 'second hand' and the at some stage the characteristic high stem head was broken off and a new one will have to grafted on. Various other details will be improved for better definition of the shapes. Although the casting is well made, there are certain limitations due to the casting process. A company policy of Artitec is to limit the number of parts and to cast-on as many details as possible. Thus for instance the spill is cast onto the foredeck. There are limitations to undercuts in the silicone rubber molds, hence the barrel is not completely free. I shall have to remove the material underneath the barrel using a scalpel etc.

The Artitec polyurethane resin castings (note that the stem head is broken off) Artitec finished model

Not only are Artitec masters in casting kits, but also in painting them as is evidenced for instance by the diorama of the Texel Roadsted and models in various other museums around the Netherlands. Below is a finished botter model from their Web-site.

- 03/10/10
The building began with removing the casting pips. It appears that the model was cast upside-down, so that excess resin is found only at the bottom of the hull. This excess was cut off with an abrasive disk in the hand-held powerdrill. The bottom was then ground flat onto the waterline on a piece of wet-and-dry sanding paper. It is important to hold the hull securely during the various building steps. To this end two 2.5 mm holes were drilled into the solid part of the hull and tapped for M3 screws with which it can screwed down on a piece of wood for safe handling. The tapped holes will also used to hold down the model in its dioramic setting

Holding the model for working
Bow with spill
Spill (© van Beylen 1985)
Stern without horse for main-sheet
Main-sheet horse (© van Beylen 1985)

- 10/10/10
The hull casting was then inspected for any flash and it removed with a scalpell and files. Luckily, there was hardly any flash. As the next step the hull casting was compared with drawings from the literature, mainly BEYLEN (1985) and DORLEIJN (2001), as well as the above photographic images. As is discussed below, it will assumed that the model represents a botter from Marken. Botters from different regions differed in characteristic details and these should be represented as true as is reasonably possible at this small scale. When going over the casting a number of 'problems' were noted: a) the spill lacks some definition of detail, although the general shape is well represented; also a pawl bit is modelled, while normally the pawl would be pivoted on the inside band of the bow; b) the horse for the traveller of the main sheet is foreseen as an iron bar (an etched part), while the more common arrangement is a wooden horse integrated into the slightly raised stern-platform; c) the leeboards are meant to be glued onto wedge-shaped protrusions on the main bollards; on the prototype, the leeboards are suspended on a pin that ties into a band that is laid around the bollard; d) the horizontal wooden knees left and right of the stem-head are missing, but the whole stem-head has to be rebuilt anyway. In addition, holes for thole-pins etc. have to be drilled through. There are other little bits and pieces that need to improved, but they will not all be listed here.

Main bollard
Leeboard hinge (© van Beylen 1985) Cutting the slots for the handle bars of the spill
Milling the ratchet wheel of the spill on the dividing attachment
Parting-off the ratched wheel
The parts assembled on the spill stem

Free-hand turning of the spill ends
Milling the eight sides of the winding drum on the dividing attachment
The finished spill drum
The spill installed Improved main sheet horse Improved rudder

- 03/11/10

Given the problems with the spill, it was cut completely from the moulded hull in order to be rebuilt as a separate item. Square holes and recessions cannot be easily machined from the solid. Therefore the spill was built up from a number of parts that would allow machining, The 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm holes for the handle bars were cut as slots into a section of 4 mm round brass bar. The ratchet wheel was cut on the milling machine with a dividing attachment. All part had a 1 mm hole drilled through to take up a 1 mm brass rod. Brass was chosen in order to be able to soft-solder all parts together for the subsequent machining operations and to provide an axle. The cigar-shape of the spill was turned with the Lorch free-hand turning device. The piece was then transfered back to the dividing attachment on the mill and the eight sides of the winding drum were milled on.
In between, the hull-moulding was freed from cast-on belaying and other pins as well as the collar for the leeboards. All parts that will be replaced in metal for better definition. The respective holes for belaying and thole pins were opened up properly. The missing stem-head was fashioned from an off-cut piece of polyurethane resin. Bands and rubbing strakes for the forestay haliard were added from styrene sheet and copper wire. On close inspection it was found also that the stern piece was too narrow to accomodate the pintels for the rudder. It was widened with a piece of resin stuck on. The tiller from the kit didn't look quite like what I had seen in the literature and on real boats.  Consequently a new one was rough millled from a piece of plexiglas and finish filed to shape. The tiller was completed with the band from styrene that holds it together. in the prototype.
The horse for the traveller was also fashioned from a piece of Plexiglas that had just the right thickness. All seams were filled with putty. From putty were also sculpted the stem knees. The horse also received rubbing strakes from thin copper wire.

- 16/03/11
Leeboards Milling clamps
Slicing-off clamps
Clamps installed
Installing caulking
Mast on the milling machine
The mast in its ironwork

The leeboards are cast in resin, but due to the casting process in an open mold, their back is flat and without any sculpting. In reality, they are not just flat boards, but they have a cross-section almost like a propeller. In fact they are hollowed out over some part to create some hydrodynamic lift that counteracts the leeway and also pushes the leeboard against the boat. Using files and diamond rotary burrs the appropriate shape was given and also the separation of the individual boards of which the leeboards are composed were marked out.
There are various belaying clamps distributed around the hull. The kit has photoetched parts for these, but somehow they appear rather flat. In addition some or all of them would have to be of the single-horned variety, rather than the more common double-horned one, as forseen in the kit. Replacements were milled raw from a strip of brass and sliced off on the lathe. They were finished using the hand-held power-drill using small grindstones and polishers.
Again, the casting of the hull is nicely done, but Artitec were a bit overenthusiastic in depicting a rather worn state. If there were such big gaps in the hull, the boat would sink to the bottom of the Zuiderzee like a sieve. To counteract the rather rustic appearance, fly-tying silk was glued as 'caulking' into the gaps using varnish.
The cast mast was nicely done by Artitec - in principle, but was too short for a boat of this size, did not have the right chocs for a boat from Marken and above all was warped. A new mast was fashioned on the lathe from a piece of steel rod - I did not have suitable stock of boxwood or similar and brass, aluminium or plexiglas would have not been stiff enough. The mast was turned in steps on the watchmakers lathe. This also allowed to turn-on the mast bands. It was then transferred to the dividing attachment milling machine to mill on the squares. The various eyebolt and cranes were fashioned from copperwire and soldered or glued on.

- 23/08/11
As the mast, the boom was turned on the lathe from a 2 mm steel rod. The flexing of the rod was utilised to obtain the taper towards both ends. Again the bands were turned on and the boom was tranfered to dividing apparatus for drilling the holes for eye bolts etc. The goose neck was turned from steel and the square, where it attaches to the boom, milled on using a very small end-mill.
The gaff has a rather odd, pear-shaped cross-section. In addition its longitudinal shape is rather crooked. It was fashioned from a piece of brass wire that was tapered off and bent to the right shape. A piece of brass sheet was cut to follow the curve of gaff and hard-soldered to the brass wire. The pear-shape was filled-up with soft solder. Then the claws that were fashioned from brass were soldered on. Finally, the 0.2 mm holes for the line with which the sail is attached were drilled. The gaff was completed with various bands fashioned from partially flattened copper wire.

Turning the boom
The gaff, still without bands on the drawing from VAN BEYLEN's book
The completed gaff and boom Mast tabernacle
Boom end and thole pins
Iron-work for leeboard
Guide for running bowsprit

- 23/02/12
The smithy of the boatyard has been busy and turned out various pieces of ironwork for rigging and other purposes:
Cross-pin in belaying bollard Micro-steady for turning belaying pins and similar Shaping rigging  blocks on the milling machine with the aid of a diving head Slotting the rigging blocks on the lathe
Milling slots into rigging blocks Jewelling press with shop-made anvils
Selection of blocks before painting

- summer 2012

Though still a long way away some preparations for the rigging of the model were made by designing and building a miniature rope-walk.

- autumn 2012

I have been thinking very hard on ways to make really convincing rigging blocks of late 19th century model. Some of the blocks would have to be as small as 1.6 mm long, while the typical block would be just under 2 mm long. Most of the blocks would have to have external ironwork. The ropes for the running rigging typically would have a diameter of somewhere between 0.15 mm and 0.25 mm in 1/90 scale, depending on the particular rope. This would mean that quite a large number of holes of equivalent diameters would have to drilled to a depth of around 1 mm, which is a bit of a challenge. I wanted to avoid this by cutting slots into the material and inserting real sheaves turned from brass. The slots at the bottom would have to be filled in later. The outside shape of the block was to be milled in the dividing head from round stock. A table was prepared that calculated the exact distance of the cutter from the centre-line for each pass, so that eventually the oval shape would emerge. This raw part then was transferred to the lathe for cutting the slots. While perhaps a good idea from a theoretical point of view, the slotted material proved to be too flimsy for further manipulation. Therefore, a different method was devised, for which the material was changed from brass to Plexiglas. The outside shape was cut as before, but instead of using a flycutter, a dental burr was used, which due to its smaller diameter exerts less force on the part. Then the holes were drilled at pre-calculated positions. The cross-section of the future blocks were positioned in the round Plexiglas stock in a way that the axes of the sheave would coincide with the rotational axis of the dividing head. This arrangement allowed the sheave to be milled out of the solid. Many shipmodellers just drill their blocks and perhaps, if they have a thin enough tool, attempt to file the edges of the hole round to give an indication of the sheave. However, this never looks quite right, with the ropes sort of sticking out sideways from the, rather than running around the sheave. These blocks then were cut off from the stock on the lathe. It should be noted that the stock was turned down at the end, so that it could be inserted into the collets against a shoulder, ensuring repeatable positioning. The latter was needed, as the dividing head on the lathe and the one on the mill use different types of collets.
The botter has a variety of rather special blocks that also needed to be made, such as the sheepshead-block for the foresail. They were produced the technique described above, but in some instances were 'eyeballed' from the stock in the dividing head. One violin-block was also built up from hard paper with real brass sheaves and filed to shape by hand. The blocks were completed with 'ironwork' from copper wire. On the prototype this ironwork is forged from different sizes of bars. The blacksmith shapes the cross-sections as needed either flat (around the shell of the blocks) or round/oval for the hooks. This process was repeated up to a point by flattening the round copper wire used. In order to flatten the wire in a controllable and repeatable way another watch-repairing tool was adapted: a so-called jewelling press. This tool has a piston the movement of which is controlled by micrometer stop. I made some anvils and pistons for it that allow to squeeze the copper wire to a preset thickness over a particular length. The thickness is set with the help of a feeler-gauge.

- January/February 2013
Drawing sail plan 'as built'
Panels of sail-'cloth'
Assembling the sail from the panels and adding doublings etc.
Fake eyesplices Completed sails ready to be painted

With many parts of the boat actually completed, I turned my attention to the sails. I did this before painting the model, as various fitting and shaping actions will be required that may damage the paintwork.
The plan is to show the sails in a sort of semi-set stage, as they would be when the boat is in harbour in order to allow them to dry. This going to be a much bigger challenge to represent convincingly than fully set or furled sails. As the boat will be shown in its winter rig, there will be only two sails.
The raw material is a very thin tissue paper that I found in my stock. The first step was to draw a sail plan 'as built', i.e. with the actual dimensions of the mast, boom and gaff. The shape of each panel of sail-cloth was pencilled in also with the help of a french curve. The drawing then was backed with a piece of stiff cardboard and covered in clingfilm. Based on this pattern the individual sail-'cloths' were cut from the tissue paper with the addition of 1 mm for the seam. This is rather wide at this scale, but inconsequential as the sail will not be translucent, being tanned and dressed (i.e. soaked in a broth from bark and smeared with a concoction of tallow, oil and ochre) on the prototype. This treatment prevents the formation of mildew and allows to furl the sails when wet. Using the drawing as a template, panels were stuck together using wood-filler (CLOU Schnellschleifgrundierung) as glue. The tissue paper soaks up the filler, turning it into a sort of compound material. I prefer wood-filler over diluted PVA-glue because it does not swell the glue and the joints can be loosened and re-adjusted by applying a drop of thinner. After completing the basic sails, outside margins and doublings were added in the same way based on the detail drawings in VAN BEYLEN, (1995) and DORLEIJN (2001).
The next thing to go on was the bolt-rope. The rope was made on the miniature rope-walk from 8/0 size tan fly-tying yarn (UNI-Thread). According to the authors cited, is was left to the individual sailmaker whether the bolt-rope was sewn to the port or starboard side of the sail. I attached all doublings to the port side and decided on the starboard side for the bolt-rope. Again it was glued on using the wood-filler. On the prototype the bolt-rope does not continue all-around the sails, but rather ends at the respective head in spliced eyes. The mainsail is attached to corresponding eyebolts in the gaff with hooks or shackles in these eyes. Owing to the springiness of the fly-tying yarn, I found it impossible to recreate real eyesplices. I took some artisanal license and bound the eyes, pretending they were served eyesplices. The eyes at the other corners of the sails were fashioned in a similar way. To increase the stability of the sail, the corners of the bolt-rope were 'sewn' to the tissue paper using 14/0 size fly-tying yarn (Sheer).

Painted sails
Tools used for sailmaking
Hull and mast after the application of a base coat of paint Hull painted and weathered

The sails were further completed by adding cringles and eyelets. For the cringles the sail was punched with a needle to simulate the eyelets. A piece of 8/0 yarn was threaded through, twisted with itself and secured with a blob of lacquer. The free ends were threaded cross-wise through the second eyelet and secured with knots. The cringle was secured with a bit of lacquer. For eyelets in the sail itself blobs of acrylic gel were set on both sides and once dry punched with a needle. The foresail runs on small iron hoops along the forestay. These were reproduced by small rings of copper wire that were sewn to the cringles using 16/0 size yarn (Veevus). The sails then were checked for any joints having come loose and more wood-filler was applied if needed. Now the sails were ready for painting. A terracotta colour ('terre' by Prince August Air) was chosen as the base colour that was applied with an airbrush. Once on the model some weathering and shading will add more plasticity.

- March 2013
Finally, the hull etc. were ready for the application of a base coat of paint using the airbrush. A light terracotta/flesh colour was used for the hull and an ochre ('bois' by Prince August Air) for the spars.

- April 2013
In order to create 'depth' of the surface and a wood-like appearance, the hull and other parts were brush-painted with an oak-coloured cellulose-based varnish. This proved to be not such a good procedure as it is not possible to apply a second coat to deepen the sheen, as the second coat tends to redesolve the first coat. On a next project the varnish should be applied by airbrush. The resulting uneven coating then was rubbed down cautiously with fine steel wool and a glass eraser. This resulted in a suitably 'worn' look. This appearance was further enhanced by targeted washing with acrylic burnt umber. The tarring of the underwater body was simulated by a stronger wash of burnt umber. The rubbing strake and the registration number board were painted in black, the registration number was hand-drawn in white acrylic. Finally, the hull was given a light coat in matt acrylic varnish (Winsor & Newton), which resulted in just the right lustre.
In the next step all the iron work was given a coat in black acrylic, followed by wash with a mixture of acrylic burnt and 'rouille metallique' (Prince August Air), which gives it a sort of 'browned' appearance. The metallic effect was further highlighted in places, where the metal would have been worn bright by rubbing with a soft pencil (6B).
As a last step grime and dryed salt spray were simulated by rubbing-on black and white pastels with a brush and a cotton bud. This procedure also gives the foredeck and the floorboards a well-worn appearance. This procedure was applied to all individual parts, not only the hull.

Hull painted and weathered
Main-sail with reg. no.
Reeving of the fore-stay deadeye The fore-stay deadeye Hooked
-on fore-stay

Fore-sail with halliard and sheet read to be set Head of the fore-sail

- July 2013

With the hull essentially complete, the attention turned back to the sails and the rig. A job that filled me with some apprehensions was painting the registration number onto the botter’s main-sail. A bad job on this can spoil the appearance of a whole model. Finding an easy way to produce white lettering or other markings on a model would deserve a modellers’ Nobel Prize. Any procedure I could think of requires several, sometimes elaborate, steps. There are virtually no printers that can print white. In the past there was one or the other thermotransfer printer, but they seem to have disappeared from the market. Owing to the fact that you really need heavy pigments to arrive at good coverage, ink-jet printers are not really a feasible technical route. Recently OKI came onto the market with a laser printer that uses white, yellow, cyan and magenta toners: http://www.okidata.com/procolor/711wt. I don’t know anyone who has one already and for that price, I would rather buy some other machinery. Printing on white decal sheet is also not really a practical option, as you will never match the background colour, at least not with the murky terracotta I used for the sails. Then I thought about stencelling. This would mean to etch a stencil first – too much work for just two markings. Technically speaking, a good option would be tampon printing. This is routinely used e.g. to apply the lettering on model railway rolling stock. Again, you need to etch a cliché first. For one offs, you could use a drill press as transfer press. You would also need to find some chunk of silicone rubber to make the tampon. All these options are too involved, though I will be watching this laser printing thing. Some day they may come out with a consumer version of it.
So, in the end I resorted to hand-painting. I took out my old lettering stencils that hadn’t been used for decades and marked the lettering on the sail. I then used a short-haired 5/0 brush and white airbrushing acrylic paint. I had also experimented with a pen, but the brush allowed more control on the somewhat uneven surface of the sail. I painted the main strokes of the letters/numbers and then added the serifs. They will have rounded corners, but the lettering was touched up with the base colour of the sail to get sharp outside corners. Finally the sheen was equalized with a light touch of matt acrylic varnish.

- August 2013
Once mast had been stepped the rigging of the model commenced. The forestay of a botter is a particularity, as it is formed from an wrought iron rod with eyes forged into its ends, rather than being made form steel wire. The fore-stay of the botter is hooked into an eye-bolt of the mast. This was truely reproduced. There were various methods of rigging the fore-stay of a botter in use up to the end of the 19th century. I chose the somewhat old-fashioned method with a dead-eye. The lanyard is a rope made on my own rope-walk: three strands of Veevus fly-tying thread 16/0 in golden brown. The colour was chosen because the lanyard would have been tarred. I wanted to put a real wall-knot onto the end, but the fly-tying thread works almost like wire and is well nigh impossible to splice. The dead-eye was set up with the helpf of a small tripod.
On the prototype one would install, of course, the fore-stay first. The fore-sail would be attached with its iron hanks. In this case, however, the hoops have already been sewn onto the sail, a work that would have been virtually impossible to do in situ. Therefore, the fore-stay has to be installed with the fore-sail attached to it. Form a modelling point of view sailships of the late 19th / early 20th century are quite difficult to rig. In previous periods ropes were often either spliced directly into eye-bolts or sewn on, which both are quite easy to reproduce in a model even at small scales. In later times, to the contrary, shackles and hooks became ubiquitous. It made the rigging and repair easier, but making shackles or hooks of 0.5 mm or 1 mm length is quite impossible (the smallest shackles I managed to make are about 2.5 mm long).

Clew of the fore-sail Fore-stay made from a 'rod'
Setting draping the fore-sail in half-set state
Rigging the fore-sail sheet Fore-sail head

- Autumn 2013
Now the rigging begins in earnest. As different sizes of rope are needed for the various parts of the rigging, they are made on my ropewalk as the rigging progresses.
In a first step the various blocks, namely the sheep’s head-block for the fore-sail halliard had to be hooked into the bolt-rope and a single sheet-block with second eye had to spliced to the clew of the fore-sail. The halliard is an interesting item, as it also serves as a down-haul, i.e. it sort of endless its ‚free’ end is spliced around aone of the hooks of the sheep’s head-block. In real life the halliard is a pointed rope, meaning it becomes thinner at the ‚free’ end. However, this cannot be reproduced seriously at the 1/90 scale. The sheet is also lead in an interesting way. It is lead like a gun-tackle, but the second single block inboard is missing. Instead, the sheet is lead around the groove of a half-cleat on which it is also belayed. VAN BEYLEN (1985) describes alternatives for the arrangement of the fore-sail sheet, some of them lead like a gun-tackle, but with one or even both single blocks missing. He does not explain the rational for the absence of the blocks. The increased friction would be of advantage when holding the sheet in strong wind, but would make it more difficult to haul it in.
The mainsail was sewn onto to the port side of the gaff. On those Dutch craft the lace-line runs through a grommet of the head of the sail, then straight through a hole drilled into the gaff with a pear-shaped cross-section, runs along the starbord-side, returns throught the next hole and grommet, continues along the port side of the sail to the grommet, etc. Into the grommets of the fore-leech of the sail the various lacings were spliced. With these the sail eventually will be tied to the mast. Often chafing of the lacing was reduced by a number of parrels. However, I neither could find small enough beads (0.6 mm diameter with a hole drilled through), nor did I manage to produce them myself. The parrels are optional anyway. In the end I wound a length of copper-wire around a 0.6 mm drill and painted this wire tube in wood colour after bending it into an S-shape to fit around the mast. I also put the reef points on. These reef through a grommet and are secured by a knot on both sides.

Rigging tools Main sail with with reefing points etc.
Head of the main sail
Running rigging at the mast
Stern with boom-sheet Shaping of rope coils Working stand

- November-Dcember 2013
The main sail was fitted out with the halliard and the throat-halliard and then attached. The imagined szenario is that the sails are set for drying. The shore of Volendam is exposed to the East, so that the sails are slightly filled by a light easterly breeze. The cold easterly breeze, that comes across from Germany and the Baltic was a winterstorm a couple of days ago and forced the botter to seek shelter in Volendam. The easterly wind brought with it the frost that is responsible for the Marker botter to be locked in the ice. The main boom has been topped a bit to provide better clearance in the workspace underneath.
In the meantime various ropes of different size were made from fly-tying thread. Then I also noticed that I forgot to make that special block with a half-cleat that forms the lower part of the main sheet tackle. This block was carved in the classical way from a strip of Pertinax and fitted out with an ‚iron’ band etc.
The running rigging was attached by fake eye-splices. On the prototype, all blocks are attached to eye-bolts by hooks, which are secured by musings. The pictures do not show this detail yet. Owing to this way of rigging, all tackles could be prepared in advance and just hooked into their respective eye-bolts. The throat-halliard is made up from a short length of chain with an S-hook at its end. The S-hook is attached to the eye in the bolt-rope. The throat-halliard is hauled taught with a tackle that hooks into an eye-bolt in the mast. The S-hook was made from a short length of wire that was flattenend and provided with a hole in the middle for a chain-link.
The halliards etc. were belayed prototype-fashion on half-cleats, which is rather difficult to do at this small scale in comparison to the same process on normal cleats. The rest was coiled up and stored at suitable places. I am not sure how this was done really on the prototype, as the half-cleat do not allow to suspend the coils in the usual way. The rope made from fly-tying yarn is relatively stiff. However, with a drop of flat varnish it can be persuaded to form more or less orderly coils. Hanging coils have to be loaded while the varnish dries in order to attain a natural shape.
In order to facilitate the work on the rigging the model was fixed on a small cast-iron stand. This stand can be turned and pushed around on the work-table at one’s convenience, yet is stable and safe. The actual rigging work is rather difficult to photograph – one’s three hands are already busy and there is no free hand for the camera.

The fishing net on the botter model
a net

Tool for making (fish-)baskets Weaving fish-baskets[ The finished fish-baskets Different details to go on board later

The botter is a fishing boat and a fishing boat needs a net. But just this caused me some headache. In accordance with the ‚story’ that is to be told in this scene, the net will be shown hauled out up the mast for drying. This can be seen on many old photographs. In these old photographs one also notes the fineness of the yarn from which such nets were made. There is not really any material that can convincingly represent a fishing net in the 1:87 scale. The second best solution are the finest ladies tights one can put one’s hand on. Unfortunately, these don’t have quite the reddish-brown colour of a tanned fishing net. In order to improve their resistance against the elements, fishing nets were ‚tanned’, i.e. they were boiled in a brew made from oak bark. An additional problem was, that I didn’t have any detail information on what kind of nets a Botter would have used in the winter fisheries on the Zuiderzee and how these nets were constructed – VAN BEYLEN (1985) just devotes half a page to the subject. There is a book by Pieter Dorleijn, that apparently treats the subject in some detail, but I found it too expensive to buy this book, just for the one net I had to make. Therefore, I cheated a bit. As the tights didn’t have quite the right colour, I somehow had to dye them, which turned out rather difficult to do. First I pulled the tight over a round-bellied bottle to open the meshes. A try with mahagoni-coloured woood-stain failed, the material just didn’t take up the stain. In the end I stabilised the tight with thinned matt acrylic varnish applied with the airbrush. After cutting it out, the ‚net’ was coloured using Sepia-ink, again applied with the airbrush. The acrylic varnish allows the net to be draped in an acceptably realistic way. The net then was glued with solvent-based matt varnish onto the fore-deck. A few drops of this fast-drying varnish also kept the draping in shape.
The lee-boards were brought on board too. They are fastened with small round-headed nails. In reality the lee-board would have been secured on the pin with a wedge in a rectangular slot in its outboard end. As on the model this pin has a diameter of only 0.4 mm, I gave up on the idea to recreated this arrangement :)  The lee-boards are raised by a simple tackle. A block with a hole, fastened to the rail, redirects the pulling force and acts as a stop. The lee-board halliard is belayed on the aftermost half-cleat.
Also the various belaying pins found their right places. The pins, turned from steel, were heated using a hot-air soldering gun until they changed their colour to brown and almost blue. This, in my opinion, looks quite like forged iron that is slightly rusted.

- January 2014
A fishing boats needs some fish-baskets to store the sorted catch in. I could not think a convincing method to fake such baskets and dropped ideas of using fabric or wire mesh – there would always be an unrealistic seam. If you have a closed or filled basket, you may sculpt it from something and imprint the woven pattern, but this does not work for empty ones. In the end, I decided to weave real baskets, well almost. For this I needed a tool that would give the basket its shape and allow me to handle it while weaving. So I turned the little implement above from a piece of 5 mm diameter aluminium and drilled a 2 mm hole all the way through it. It will allow me make two baskets simultaneously. The material for weaving is another issue. I would have like to use wire, but it would have been difficult to actually weave with wire. So I used some thin cotton thread for the stakes and fly-tying yarn for the weave. First the ‚stakes’ were put into place by wind the thread around the form tool in a continuous series of loops, passing the return part through the middle of the center bore of the tool. This then was woven out with the fly-tying yarn using a sewing needle. The rim is a bit of a fake: normally the stakes would be bent back one over each other to produce a stable and decorative finishing. Here I made a double row of half-hitches with the weave, i.e. the fly-tying thread. Once this was finished, the ‚basket’ was soaked in wood stain and then a few dabs of matt varnish were applied to secure the weaving. The stakes with the exception of two on each side then were cut off flush with the rim. The remaining stakes were twisted into looped handles. Finally the stakes were cut around the hole in the bottom of tool. A bottom of the basket was faked by closing the hole with a good drop of white glue. The baskets then were weathered using acrylics paint (umbra). After looking at the museum-picture, I noticed that I should paint onto the baskets the registration number of the boat - so that catch can be identified at the fish auction.
One may notice on the above photograph that in the meantime also the anchor, a grab, has been installed. Finding such small chain is a challenge, but I got something suitable from a Bavarian model railway supplier. While the links were nicely soldered and blackend, they were actually round. Anchor chains, however, have oval links. With a pair of pliers I slightly squashed the links into an oval shape.

- Autumn 2014
Work on the  botter model continued with a few pieces of equipment as shown in VAN BEYLEN’s book: a long and a short boat-hook, the the tiller, a shovel-shaped bailer, a handspike for the spill, the pennant that goes onto the mast-top ... and the ‚afwasbak’, a wooden box for doing the washing-up, or sorting fish, together with a teapot and couple of mugs in white emaille.
The teapot and the mugs were turned from brass. The spout and handles were soldered or glued on, while the pieces where still attached to the stock, as was done the painting. The pieces were then parted-off back on the lathe. The teapot has a diameter of 2 mm !

Finally, all the equipment and the figurines described below were put in their designated places. This concludes the work on the model.

Scenic Setting - The Story

The kit is actually for a waterline model, which somewhat limits the possibilities for dioramic displays. It was originally envisaged to show the boat on a slip such as that preserved in the Zuiderzeemuseum in Enkhuizen, but being a waterline model this is unfortunately not possible.

In developing a scenic setting some sort of story-board is of great help. It sets down the wheres, whys and hows, and thus helps to make the scene consistent and logical. Having lived for several years in Noord-Holland, the inspiration for the setting to be developed came from a winter visit to the Zuiderzeemuseum and a subsequent trip along the coast of the Isselmeer towards Volendam. Quite rare today, the canals and part of the Isselmeer were frozen over. There was a thick accumulation of 'pankake' ice floes around the coast, while the canals where frozen black, there having been no snow. Appropriately the museum showed wintery footage of locals ice-scating around frozen-in boats, taken in the 1930s in Volendam and Marken. Hence, the idea developed to show exactly this scene: a botter from Marken trapped by the ice in the harbour of Volendam; the sails were too stiff to be taken in and are still half-set; the net is hoisted to dry, but would also be frozen stiff; the skipper and his mate, dressed in the charakteristic Marker dress with 'culots', while locals in the Volendam dress - the men in baggy black trousers and tight black jacket and waist-coat, the women with the well-known white lace bonnet - scate past; there may be also a couple of kids on a push-sleigh. The time would be around the turn of the 19th to the 20th century. This 'story' allows me to show both, the Volendam and Marken costumes.

Winter impressions (2009) from Enkuizen
© W.E. Falck (www.imago-orbis.org)
The area of Edam-Volendam and Marken has coined very much our mental picture of the Netherlands, thanks to the numerous painters who came to this area from the last quarter of the 19th century onwards. They were attracted by the picturesque towns and villages as well as the locals who still wore their traditional costumes. Thus we came to think that the baggy trousers of Volendam and the culots of Marken were the Dutch men's costume. Similarly the women's dresses with a striped apron and the peaked lace bonnet became synonymous for the Dutch women's costume. They are picturesque, without question and somewhat exotic when seen together with the large wooden clogs. So, some fisherfolk in these costumes will add greatly to the atmosphere. While the female costume from Volendam is rather pretty, I think, to the contrary the traditional costumes from Marken are almost ugly, particularly the headgear: the women used to wear the neck and back of the head almost clean-shaven while long streaks of hair protruded at their temples from underneath the bonnets ...

Photographs and paintings are another source of inspiration for a dioramic setting and below I provide the link to a number of them together with an identification of the source, as the material might be copyrighted:

A.P. Schotel
A.P. Schotel
W.B.Tholen P.P. Rink
© www.geheugenvannederland.nl
© Simonis & Buunk
Kwak (J. Siewers)
Volendam (J. Siewers) Volendam (J. Siewers) Volendam (J. Siewers) Volendam (J. Siewers) unknown
© www.geheugenvannederland.nl

Volendam (unknown)
Urk (unknown)
© www.geheugenvannederland.nl

Marken Costumes

Winter-pleasures at Voldendam and Marken Winter labour
© www.geheugenvannederland.nl

Creating the scenery and building the display case

The baseboard for the scenic setting is a piece of blockboard cut to size in the DIY store. At a later stage it will be protected by a (Plexi)glass display case with brass edges.

On the left side there will be a short stretch of dike behind which Volendam is tugged away. The height is not quite to scale, but I didn't want it to dominate the scenic setting. The dike is framed by some left-overs of mitred laths and filled-in with residues of balsa wood. The basis for the ice surface will be a 2 mm Plexiglas sheet. I drilled a hole through the board and the Plexiglas for the screw with which the botter model will be fixed. Everything being glued together, I sanded the four sides smooth and flush. The wood then was stained in mahagony and varnished, as will be the frame of the display case. The section of the dike was then covered in a thin layer of repair plaster from a tube (I happen to have this and gave it a try, rather than using plaster of Paris mixed with wallpaper glue). Once hard, individual bricks were engraved with a needle held in a pinvice. The whole surface was sealed with cellulose-based woodfiller before painting with acrylics. The dike covered in bricks was sprayed in English Red, while the water area was sprayed in burnt umber and deepened with black. In order to create a bit of variety, individual bricks were given a slight washing in blue or burnt umber. The surface then was sealed with matt acrylic varnish before a restrained weathering using pastels was applied.

Raw baseboard
Trial setting
Edges stained
Dike modelled with plaster and individual bricks engraved
Painted and weathered
Trial setting Jetty under construction

With the Plexiglas sheet to simulate the ice in place the positions for various piles that carry jetty were marked out. The design of the jetty followed that seen on the historical pictures above. Holes for inserting the piles were drilled throught the Plexiglas into the wood. I cut some square strips of soft wood on the table saw and from these 'piles' of the appropriate length were chopped. The wood was roughend and shaped using a rotary steel-wire brush in the hand-held drill. Cross-pieces etc. were shaped from the same wood or match sticks. The wood was stained in 'medium walnut', which gives it a greenish-grayish weathered appearance. The pile-heads were painted white (which gave them a better visibility in bad weather). The effect of the seawater was reproduced by letting the wood soak up some black stain from below. The piles were further weathered with washes of white watercolour and pastels.
In real life the various members would have been fastened together with iron bolts. Square washers prevented the bolt heads and nuts from being pulled into the wood and splitting it. The bolts and washers were imitated by taking simple brass nails and milling a hexagonal head and a square on to them with a set-up of an indexer on the mill. The shaft was thinned down and parted off on the lathe.

Brass nail ready to milled Milled bolt head Milling machine set-up Jetty partly painted and weathered Volendam harbour has been frozen over

The Plexiglas sheet that will become the ice surface was stiffled with acrylic gel using a bristle brush. The next step was a bit of an experiment: in the past I created drifting foam and breaking waves using a sort of icing (no pun intended) made from sugar and wallpaper glue. As we now have acrylic gel and varnish, I tried out a mixture of sugar with these. The sugar in France is rather coarse, so I ground it down in a mortar. The sugar partially dissolves in the varnish and then recrystallises. The viscosity can be adjusted by mixing sugar and varnish in different ratios. It dries up milky-white. Using this mixture, the ice floes were modelled in several steps. Also, the piles were set into the ‚ice’ with this mixture. The place for the botter was left free, but a low wall of ice will surround it. This is meant to show the fruitless efforts of the crew to keep the ice away from the wooden hull by breaking it up with crowbars and axes. Actually, the real reason is that I did not grind the bottom of the model perfectly flat and have to hide a gap at bow and stern.
I also planted some reeds at the foot of the dyke and the brick-work is beginning to be overgrown with grass. The grass, though, suffered from the cold and has wilted to a yellow.

- July 2013
The construction of the glass case is inspired by the design MCCAFFERY describes in his book ‚Ships in Miniature’ of 1988. In the past I built display cases from silicate glass. Silicate glass, however, is quite heavy and fragile (particularly when moving house). So I decided to give Plexiglas a try, though it is not as scratch resistant. Besides I had sufficient supply of 3 mm sheets left over from another project. They had resided in my stock of materials since about 1980, but was as good as new. Lucky for me, the panels for the case could be got from those sheets with just a few cuts. In a domestic context, when you do not have a big table saw, sheets of that thickness are best broken, rather than sawed. When marked-out the sheets are scored with a ‚cutter’ knife. Per milimeter of thickness it needs one go with the knife. It is important to score right to the edge of the sheet, otherwise corners may break out. The sheet is clamped down with the scored line exactly at the table edge. Then, with a decided jerk, the plate is broken off. A clean, straight edge that needs little or no sanding before glueing is the result.
The individual parts were cut such that the front and back pane abutt against the side panes. Since ordinary Plexiglas is much more prone to scratching than silicate-glass, the protective paper is being left on as long as possible. On the inside, however, it would be difficult to remove, once the case has been assembled. This was even more the case with the slightly oldish sheets I am using. Therefore, the paper was completely removed from the side that will face inward. On the outside a narrow strip along the edges was removed to prevent the glue sticking to it. The paper was only removed from the parts that were assembled at that moment.
Plexiglas can be cemented together with a variety of glues, including cyanoacrylates or those UV-hardening acrylates that recently entered the DIY market. Epoxy resins, however, should not be used, as their exothermic reaction can stress the Plexiglas, which eventually will lead to fine cracks. If you can produce a perfectly flat edge that is at a right angle to the sheet, you can use a low viscosity cement. In most DIY applications it is better to use a more gap filling higher-viscosity cement.

Design for Plexiglas (left) and silicate glass (right) case
Scoring of the sheets before breaking (it is covered in the brown protective paper)
The broken edge
Cementing together the parts of the glass case
The parts for the plinth

Waiting for the glue to set

The drilled and sanded plinth The stained and varnished plinth Plinth and glass case joined

In order to achieve high quality bonds from both, the optical and mechanical point of view, the best option is to use the Plexiglas-manufacturer’s (Rhöm, now Evonik) own cements. I used Acrifix 192, that is easy to obtain. Acrifix 192 is a light-hardening cement, essentially liquid Plexiglas (more information on Plexiglas cements also at http://www.acrifix.com). This means that the bond has almost the same optical and mechanical properties as the sheet itself. According to the manufacturer, Acrifix 192 has a shelf life of two years. The stuff I bought apparently in 1998 and kept in different fridges at various places around Europe since then worked without any problems. Only the open time was a tad short, but this seems to have been due to my two 100 W worklights. When I used only one and turned it away from the case, I could work longer on the bond.
The parts were arranged around the base plate. It would have been better to build the case before starting the scenic display, but my impatience to try out my ‚icing’ skills got the better of me. Now have to work a bit more cautiously when cementing the parts together. The four parts are held together temporarily by a gadget that is normally used to fix picture frames and the likes during glueing. In addition I used cellotape to keep the parts together. In order to allow the application of cement, the fixations are loosened a bit at the respective corner. The cement is applied rather sparingly in order to avoid it squirting out and damaging the surfaces of the Plexiglas sheet. All four corners are cemented together one after the other.
It is possible to obtain a perfect bond without any bubbles – with a bit of practice. However, I wanted to be on the safe side and used a minimum of cement, which may result in some bubbles. This is of no consequence as the corners will be covered later by L-profiles in brass anyway.
The next step was to fit a wooden plinth around the glass case. It was cut from 5 mm x 20 mm ramin-wood laths using a mitre-saw. The fit of the mitres was perfected on a home-made disc-sander.
After careful sanding on the future outside, the parts were glued together using PVA glue. The fixture for picture frames came handy here again. When the glue had set, the top of the resulting frame was sanded flat. Before that two holes were drilled through the wood and the Plexiglas. They were countersunk for two brass wood-screws with which the glass-case will be secured to the baseboard.
Actually, this design is only possible with Plexiglas, as drilling through silicate-glass would be a bit tricky to say the least. In the past I used a design, where the glass tightly fits into a groove of about 6 mm depth formed by the baseboard and the frame and was not secured any further.
When this structural work was completed, the plinth was treated with a mahagony stain. After a light rubbing down with steel wool, it was ready to be varnished, again in mahagony colour. A treatment with wood filler and shellac in several rounds would have been better, but with age one gets a bit lazy.

Creating the Staffage

In the scenic setting there will be several figures according the assumed 'story'. In other words there will be the crew of the botter whiling away there enforced stay in Volendam with some cleaning and maintenance work on a sunny but wintery Saturday afternoon. On the dyke a young couple with their baby have a stroll and on the ice a younger man pushes his elderly grandmother on a sleigh. The starting point was a set of unpainted figures from the Preiser-range.

I selected suitable poses, to begin with for the fisherman and his mate, who are both assumed to be from Marken. The dress of Marken men is characterised by very baggy breeches- or culotte-like trousers of dark (black, blue, brown) wool or of natural linen. The lower legs are covered by dark woolen stockings. In the more clement seasons a collarles heavy shirt is worn, sometimes also a crew-neck sweater. In the more inclement seasons a jacket may be added, but people at this time were hardy and these don't appear too often, even on winter photographs. The head was protected by a round felt hat, a cap like a forage-cap with a narrow shield or a knitted 'sock' cap. Around the neck a scarf was worn. For work and on weekdays universally clogs were worn. The exact shape of clogs around the Netherlands depends on in which village they were made. There are many more details to the dresses, but this is not the place for an ethnographic essay on Dutch folk costumes.
A range of photographs from the late 19th and early 20th century provided inspirations for the conversions. The Preiser figures were carved according to the needs of the dresses or details were sculpted-on using putty. The changes become obvious, when one compares the box art with the photographs of the figures. A spray-painted base coat in a dark flesh colour make imperfections glaringly obvious, when a photograph is taken. The skipper will be clad largely dark, with the clogs having a light, but worn wood-colour. Conversely, his mate will be at work, cleaning some gear and, therefore, is dressed with a beige canvas apron. He also put on his sea-boots, consisting of clogs with a canvas bootlegs.

Costume details of a fisherman from Marken Box art
before the base coat with base coat
ready painted
© www.geheugenvannederland.nl Zuiderzee-museum Preiser Conversion of Marker fisherman

Costume details of a fisherman from Marken Box art before the base coat with base coat ready painted
© www.geheugenvannederland.nl Zuiderzee-museum Preiser Conversion of Marker fisherman's mate

The botter-crew is completed by a boy, often a young relative, such as a nephew, of the fisherman. The Preiser-set contained an old-time uniform-clad bell-boy for a upmarket hotel. Fate turned him into a rougher fisherman's boy who is carrying two buckets of freshwater on joke from the village down the jetty to the boat - rather than the hatbox of a fashionable lady. He is now wearing the baggy 'culottes', clogs and a shielded cap. The joke was carved from a piece of phenolic resin-impregnated paper.

Original figure
in base coat
ready painted

Preiser Conversion of Marker fisher boy

The traditional dress of the Volendam people is somewhat different from that of Marken. The men wear long baggy black trousers, which gives them a very distinctive silhouette. The upper body is covered by a shirt and a tight-fitting jacket, which is often of some pale red colour, but can also be black. In winter a sort of pea-jacket may be worn, which is black with blue lining. The women wear long skirts over which a full-length apron is tied. The skirt is either dark and then a white or striped apron is used, or the other way around. The upper body is covered by a tight-fitting jacket under which shirt is worn, that may be visible at the decolltée. According to photographs and drawings there are many variations, particularly for work-day dresses. The sleeves of the jacket for adult women were only 3/4 length and pushed back to the elbows. In winter knitted pull-on sleeves may be worn, put the fisherfolks were a hardy folk. The most distinctive feature in the women's dress was the white lace bonnet with starched and turned-up flaps at the sleeve. Both sexes wore wooden clogs as everyday footwear, but leather slippers and pantolettes were also used, particular to church on Sunday (BTW, Volendam is an oddity, being a catholic village in a largely protestant country).
Due to the fact that picturesque village and its equally picturesque inhabitants drew many artists and tourists from the late 19th onward, the Volendam costume became the best known and 'typical' Dutch folk costume.
The first pair of Volendam folks is a young couple that has a stroll on the dyke, while she is carrying their baby. The second pair will be a younger man who pushes an elderly woman (his grandmother ?) on a sleigh across the ice.

Volendam female costume
Volendam male costume Original figures
in base coat
ready painted in base coat ready painted
© www.geheugenvannederland.nl Preiser Conversion of young man from Volendam
Conversion of young womman with child from Volendam

Old woman from Volendam
Original figures
in base coat
ready painted in base coat ready painted
© www.geheugen vannederland.nl Preiser Conversion of young man from Volendam
Conversion of old woman from Volendam

Sleighs unpainted
with the figurines
Zuiderzeemuseum Push-sleigh constructed from polystyrene card

The Finished Model (16.11.14)

... and this is the end of my Noord-Holland nostalgia project.


ANONYM (1935): Nederlandsch Historisch Sheepvaart Museum, Platen Album.- 61 p., Amsterdam.

BEYLEN, J. VAN (1985): De botter - Geschiedenis en bouwbeschrijving van een Nederlands visserschip.- 223 p., Weesp (De Boer Maritiem).

BEYLEN, J. VAN (2013): Zuiderzee botter - Bouwbeschrijving van een model.- Scheepsmodelbouw 3: 64 p., Emmen (Lanasta).

CRONE, G.C.E. (1926): Nederlandsche Jachten, Binnenschepen Visschersvaartuigen en daarmee Verwante kleine Zeeschepen 1650 -1900.- 309 p., 85 figs., Amsterdam (Swets & Zeitlinger, reprint 1978 by Schiepers, Schiedam).

DORLEIJN, P. (2001): De Bouwgeschiedenis van de Botter. Vierendertig voet in de kiel.- 168 p., Lelystad (Uitgeverij Van Wijnen).

HUITEMA, E. [Ed.] (19652): Ronde en platboden jachten.- 300 p., Amsterdam (P.N. Van Kampen & Zon).

NEDERLANDSCH HISTORISCH SCHEEPVAART MUSEUM [Ed.] (1969): Descriptive Catalogue.- 104 p., Amsterdam (Nederlandsch Historisch Sheepvaart Museum).

NOOTEBOOM, C. (~1925): De inlandsche scheepvaart. Deel 11 van de gids in Het Volkenkundig Museum.- 79 p., Amsterdam (Koninklijke Vereeniging ‘Koloniaal Instituut).

OSTROM, C. van (1988): Ronde en platbodems schepen en jachten.- 144 p., Alkmaar (De Alk b.v.).

PEL, H. VAN (1956): How to tan nets, sails and lines.- South Pacific Commission Quarterly Bulletin, 6(3): 33.

SOPERS, P.J.V.M. (196?): Schepen die verdwijnen (bearbeitet von H.C.A. van Kampen).- 162 p., Amsterdam (P.N. Van Kampen & Zon).

VOORBEIJTEL, W. (1943): Bechrijvende Catalogus der Scheepsmodellen en Scheepsbouwkundige Tekeningen 1600-1900.- 191 p. Amsterdam (Nederlandsch Scheepvartmuseum).

Selected Links

http://www.botters.nl/ - Daysailing in botters
http://www.bottercompagnie.nl/ - Association of botter-owners that undertake tours etc. against payment
http://www.botteruitje.nl/ - Daysailing in botters - Daysailing in botters
http://www.botterverhuur.com/De_BU39.htm - History of the botter that is offered for daysailing.
- Association for the preservation of botters.
- Boatyard specialising in botters.
- Garn-Kwak VD172
http://www.huizerbotters.nl/ - Botter foundation of Huizen
http://www.windenwater.nl/index.html - A botter building and repairing yard

Links to sources of interest
http://beeldbank.nationaalarchief.nl/ - Historic photographs from the Dutch National Archives
http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl - Memories of Netherland - On-line image bank of the Dutch Royal Library
http://www.beeldbank-nh.nl/ - Historic photographs from the Noord Hollands Archives
http://www.dirk-advies.com/prod01.htm - Pictures from the Zuiderzee
http://www.kustvaartforum.com/ - Discussion forum for Dutch coastal shipping
http://www.punterwerf.nl/ - Building and repair yard
http://www.zuiderzeeambachten.nl/ - Zuiderzee pictures and stories

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOHWTbEC3qk - Building of the botter CONSTANTER in Friesland (NL)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=85pf13qWXwQ - Botter-restauration

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