||The hull and
||The 30.5 cm Rk/l22 gun
|updated 12/02/2021||updated 03/10/2020
Cutting the layers on a powered fretsaw
|Sanding the sides of each layer vertical on
an improvised disc sander
||The first layers
||The barbette and pockets for the anchors
for the rubbing strakes
sander to work the inside of the barbette
body on the new shop-made disc sander
from laminated Bristol board
on the lathe
hawse pipe on the horizontal milling machine
partially clad in Pertinax
in constructing the hull
plating and planking
||Excerpts from contemporary drawings||Barbette
printing of bulwark layout
hull- and deck-plating installed
and installing the hawse-pipes
for half-round profiles
and rubbing strakes installed
steps of jacobs-ladders
ready to be installed
for mooring hawser
||Laser-cut lids for the freeing-ports||Installation
of frames and lids
back of the fore-deck with the doors installed
the smoothest ones, alway have a certain surface-roughness, at
least compared to the bakelite of the bulwark. Therefore, the
chosen paper was soaked in wood filler and spread to dry on a
thick glass-plate that was covered in cling-film. The latter
allowed to remove the paper without it rolling up. The surface
was then smoothed with very fine steel-wool. The lids were cut
from the thus prepared paper, but it needed several trials to
find the right cutting parameters in order to arrive at parts
of the correct dimensions. This is a disadvantage of such
simple laser-cutters and their software. As the material is
practically free, this is only a nuisance, but no other loss.
Also the etching may not work out right in the first go, which
may mean a considerable loss of money and time, if the process
had been outsourced-
Unfortunately, it does not work for very small parts with the paper prepared as above. It turned out to better for the very small parts, including the frames, to cut them from unprepared paper. Perhaps I should switch to dark paper. Due to its lower albedo (reflectivity) it absorbs more energy from the laser. Unfortunately, all the coloured papers I have come by so far are quite rough on the surface.
I cheated somewhat for the freeing-ports. As I was afraid that I would not been able to cut them out cleanly and evenly, I abstained from it. Also, the bakelite-paper used for the bulwark for reasons of stability would have had a scale-thickness of 64 mm, when looked on from the side. Therefore, frames and lids were glued flat onto the inside and outside of the bulwark respectively. I hope one will not notice this too much, once the stanchions are in as well.
Frames and lids were glued on with zapon-lacquer. Little laser-cut rectangles of 0.3 mm x 0.5 mm were stuck onto lids to simulate the hinges.
Foredeck and decks-house were accessible through various doors. These were cut from 0.1 mm bakelite paper with the laser-cutter. The hinges were laser-cut from thin paper. In both cases various tries were needed with different cutting parameters and slightly altered drawings in order to arrive at the correct size. Die parts were assembled using zapon-lacquer. Zapon-lacquer was also used to glue the door into place.
On historical photographs I noticed that each door had a narrow step. These were represented by shaped and laser-cut tiny strips of paper.
Once the door were in place the hole for the bullseyes were drilled out. The laser-cut hole served as a guide. Once the boat is painted, the glazing will be installed in form of short lengths of 1 mm Plexiglas rods. The front of the rods will be faced and polished carefully on the lathe.
At a later moment also the door-knobs will be turned from brass and installed.
|Best available image of the bow scrollwork
and name-plate (S.M.S. SCORPION)
||Only available image of the stern scrollwork
||Artwork for the bow scrollwork||Some examples of (unused) laser-cut scrollwork and the name-plates||Scrollwork and name-plate in place||Stern scrollwork in place|
June 2020 - Scrollwork
and name-plates - As I had tried laser-engraving on
cardboard for the gun-layer stand, I wanted to try out this
technique also for the scrollwork and the name-plates.
Originally, I had foreseen to develop the scrollwork by printing
the design onto a decal-sheet and then build it up by sculpting
it over the printed lines with acrylic gel. The name-plates
could have been surface-etched in brass. One could have etched,
of course also the scrollwork in brass and then complete it with
It is not very clear what the scrollwork looked like when new and from what material it was made. The fact that it seems to have persisted intact over the whole life of these ships may indicate that it was actually cast in some metal, rather than carved in wood.
There are no close-up photographs of sufficient resolution in the black-white-yellow paint-scheme. Closer photographs are only available from a later period, when everything was painted over in grey and some of scrollwork may have been picked out in a darker grey. Originally it was probably painted in yellow-ochre with parts of gilded. In any case, available photographs are not clear enough to truly reconstract the scrollwork, so some interpretation was necessary.
In addition to the scrollwork per se, there was a shallow sculpture of the animal after which the ship was named, for SMS WESPE, of course, a wasp. Existing photographs only give a vague idea what these sculptures really looked like. In any case not for SMS WESPE.
There has also been some scrollwork at the stern, but pictorial evidence for this is rather scarce. There is only one known photograph that gives a full view of the stern of this class of ships and this was taken at the very end of their service life. Available copies of this photograph are not clear enough to really discern what the scrollwork actually looked like, so a fair amount of imagination is needed to recreate it.
Creating the basic artwork for the decoration was a multiple-step process. First a photograph of the respective section of the model as built was taken in order to give the necessary proportions. In the next step the best available photograph with the least perspective distortions was chosen and fitted over the model photograph. In another layer of the graphics software (Graphic for iPad) the scrolls were drawn free-hand (with the iPen) using the paintbrush-function and a good amount of smoothing. This artwork was saved as a JPEG. On the Internet I found a nice drawing of a wasp and turned this into a pure b/w image with a good bit of editing in Photoshop. Both, the scrollwork and the wasp were saved as transparent GIF. In my favourite CAD-program (EazyDraw), the parts were mounted together. This could have been done also in Photoshop, but I did have a scaled drawing of the bow-section in EazyDraw to which I exactly fitted the artwork. There were also some addtional parts to be cut.
The scrollwork was cut/engraved with the laser-cutter using the ‘half-tone’ function, which means that the laser is modulated to emit less power when a grey pixel is encountered and full power, when a black pixel is encountered. I had to play in several iterations with the settings of the laser-cutter in order to arrive at a satisfactory result.
In a first try the name-boards were made in the same way, but the half-depth engraving around the letters resulted in a somewhat fuzzy apearance of the letters. I, therefore, tried out a different idea. From previous trials it was know that the laser had no effect on transparent materials and very limited effect on translucent materials. Hence, I covered some cardboard with a thin layer of Pleximon 192 (essentially liquid, light-hardening Plexiglas). A thorough curing this sandwich was sanded flat and presented to the laser-cutter. The laser removes all the cardboard, but leaves the acrylic virtually untouched, with the exception of some light surface roughness. One ends up with a piece of thin acrylic sheet to which the letters and the scrollwork of the name-board are attached. Within the limits of the resolution (0.05 mm) of the laser-cutter the lettering turned out reasonably clear, perhaps not as crisp, as when photoetched though.
The scrollwork elements were attached to the hull using fast-drying varnish. The actual painting and guilding will be done, once the hull has been painted.
|The aft part of a WESPE-Class-Boat (Lavverenz, 1900)
||Etched and soldered together stanchions
(they are about 5.5 mm high)
bulwark-stanchions in place
slide and anchor release gear
||Recessed slide with Inglefied-anchor put temporarily in place||View of the bow with the anchor stowage|
out the metal disk with the backing of a wooden
|Grooving the races with a specially
||Cutting out the inside of the large,
||Trimming the outside of the small,
for cutting the toothed rack
toothed rack with a specially ground tool
the unwanted part of the ring with an ordinary
showing the finished rack
and the toothed rack ready to be trimmed to
correct length of arc
||Base-plate and rails for upper carriage laser-cut from Canson-paper||The basic frame of the lower carriage from the rear|
The basic frame of the lower carriage from the rear
|The basic frame of the lower carriage from
underneath with the housing for the training gears
||The basis frame of the lower
carriage with the upper carriage and the gun put
temporarily in place
drawing for the parts of the hydraulic brake
individual parts of the hydraulic recoil-brake
||Dry-fitting of the
recoil-brake into the lower carriage frame
beams on the lower carriage
Buffers and fastening nuts
|Buffers and fastening nuts – the buffer
have a diameter of 1 mm
||Safety claw, pivot plate and
||Fork for pulley
the pinion and cog-wheel for the winding mechanisms
Drawing for laser-cutting -
|First Version with engraved surfaces of the
platform for the gun-layer
||Final Version of the platform
for the gun-layer
collection of gratings and steps
||Caster wheels prepared for assembly||Caster
wheels in place
Stiffening brackets added over the caster-rollers
|Supporting brackets and rods for working the training gears||Rollers in brackets to lead the running-in tackle||The
lower carriage with the gratings installed
carriage temporarily placed into the barbette
Races and rack provisionally in their place inside the barbette
|Facing and centring a piece of steel rod
for the gun barrel
||Rough drilling of the gun barrel
||Turning the barrel using the automatic fine
off-set slide rest
'rings' using a hand turning rest
barrel using a micro boring tool
for milling the seat for the lock
of the milling operation in the dividing head with
|Working drawing and files used to finish
the lock seat
||Milling the square part of the trunnions
||Milling the seat for the trunnions
||Trying the trunnion
concave transition between trunnion and barrel
||Milling the seat for the sights||Drilling
seats for the sights
milling the lock piece
the finished lock piece
square and hexagonal bolts
|Facing the locking screw in special
protective brass collet
||The (almost) finished gun
barrel with its lock
||Part view of the drawings for the photo-etched upper carriage frames||Surface etched frames for the upper carriage||Filler and covering pieces laid out for soldering||Assembled side pieces and ties laid out|
from the rear
from the front
||Carriage with the barrel
in place. Note the trunnion bearings cover (not yet
trimmed to lenght)
||Added the rollers plus
the sockets aft for the lever that is used to turn
the excentric bearings of the rear rollers
|Cutting the gears for the
gun elevating mechanism using different division
||Cut-off wheels before
gear train in GALSTER (1885)
gears on the instruction model in Copenhagen
||Krupp factory photograph (TU Berlin)||
The step-wise forming of the dished handwheel
There is a friction-brake on the axle of the last
large wheel of the gear train, which is worked with a cross
handle. How this functions is not clear, but it presumably just
pull the gear onto the frame via a short thread that is cut onto
the end of the axle. On the starboard side of the gun there is a brass
disc and an indicator lever that somehow shows the degree of
elevation and presumably the range of the gun with different
kinds of projectiles and charges. Again, how this indicator disc
is coupled to the elevating gears is not clear, as I do not have
any suitable photographs. In any case, the respective gear train
will not be really visible on the model.
The dished handwheel
started life as parts photoetched from 0.2 mm brass. In order be
able to bend each spoke into the dished shape, a former was
turned from some round steel and set up on the watchmakers
‘staking tool’. The spokes were pre-bend by hand and then
finally pulled to shape using a hollow punch. The parts then
were chemically tinned and soldered together with the aid of
The remaining parts, such
as the axles, are simple parts turned from steel rod for
strength, as they are quite long compared to the diameter.
2020 - The gear segment for the elevating mechanism of the
barrel was produced by turning a short piece of copper pipe that I
happened to have in stock to the correct inside and outside
diameters. The teeth then were cut on the micro milling-machine
using the dividing head in a horizontal position. Then slots were
sawn at the angular distance required and then a slice of the
required thickness parted off. The ends of the segments were
finally filed to shape. The copper then was tinned in self-tinning
solution to resemble steel. For the brackets with which the gear
segment was attached to the reenforcement ring of the gun barrel a
piece of brass rod was turned out to the correct inside diameter.
On the mikro-mill with the dividing attachment in upright position
the other faces were milled to shape. Finally, the individual
bracket were sawn off with a circular saw at the correct
thickness. The parts, which are just over 1 mm long, were
chemically tinned to adapt them somewhat to the steel colour of
the barrel. As they will not have to withstand any mechanical
forces, they were glued to the reenforcement ring with zapon
There were still a few details missing on the upper carriage, for instance the indicator disc for the elevating mechanism. How this indicator is coupled to the elevating mechanism I was not able to find out. It is not shown on the drawings, it is not visible on the model in Copenhagen, and the respective parts are missing from the guns in the Suomenlinna fortress. There was probably a gear train on the inside of the carriage. For this indicator disc a piece of 2 mm brass rod was faced off and a mock gradation engraved with a toolbit turned onto its side in 6° steps. There is a steel indictor lever (the function of which is not clear to me, either the disc turned or this lever, probably the former). For this a steel disc was turned with a short arbor and transferred to the micro-mill, where the shape of the lever was milled out. This indicator disc seems to have been fitted only to the starbord side of the carriage.
Furthermore the brake-handels for the elevating mechanism were missing. A short piece of 0.25 mm diametre copper wire was flattend in the middle with a 0.8 mm diametre punch in the watchmaker’s staking tool. The resulting round flat part was soldered to a short distancing bushing and turned cap glued on from the other side.
Progress in homeopathic
doses: I realised that I forgot the the two steps at the end of
the upper carriage. So, the parts for the frame were laser-cut,
pieces of tea-bag mesh inserted and the assembly attached to the
carriage with lacquer.
|(Almost) all the parts of
the elevating gear laid out
elevanting gear provisionally assembled
||Engraving the indicator
disc for the elevating mechanism on the lathe
||Steps for the
The gun carriage will be
painted green, as evidenced by some contemporary builders’
models and a somewhat later instruction manual. The hue of the
green is another issue. It was probably based on chrome oxide
The barrel of these breech-loading guns was scraped clean, then wiped with vinegar until a brownish oxide layer developed. The process was repeated several times and any loose ‘rust’ wiped off. Finally, the barrel was rub down with lineseed oil, effectively producing in situ a paint with ferric oxihyroxide and ferric acetate as pigment. The resulting colour would be something like caput mortuum. This is the way the barrel of the demonstration model in Copenhagen seems to have been treated. Moving parts and mechanically relevant surfaces were keept clean carefully, of course. I will, therefore, lightly spray the barrel in Schmincke caput mortuum.
All parts temporarily assembled had to be taken apart for painting first. After selecting a green for the carriage, all the parts were given several light coats with the airbrush until a uniform colour and sheen was achieved. Not so easy on some of the complex parts. After letting it thoroughly dry, the paint was scraped off from those parts that are meant to be bare metal, but could not be masked off, due to being difficult to access.
The assembly then proceeded from the inside out on the lower carriage. First the parts for the hydraulic recoil brake were installed. I decided to deviate from the prototype and not to install the protective tunnel over the piston of the brake in order to show the metal-work. I think this small bit of artistic license is permissible. All parts were put together with small blobs of zapon-lacquer, which dries up quite invisible.
Next the spring buffers were installed. Putting in the tiny hexagonal nuts required a very deep breath each time.
Flipping the carriage over the caster-wheels were put back, but this really taxed my patience. The wheels are held in place by little flat-head pins inserted from both sides. A simple through-pin would have been easier to install, but wouldn’t be quite prototype fashion.The lower-carriage was very difficult to handle due to the flimsy and delicate grilles and steps. One was broken off in the process, but luckily attached nicely again.
The rail on which the upper carriage runs would be bare metal. Here the limitations of using cardboard as structural element shows its limitations. If I had used etched brass parts, I would have chemically tinned them before assembly and now could have just scraped off the paint or masked the area before painting to reveal the metal. Now I had to simulate it with paint and a soft lead pencil. I am not entirely satisfied with the result, but can’t do anything about it now anymore.Overall, I am somewhat ambivalent as to the merit of using cardboard. The surface and cut edges simply are not as smooth as those of metal or plastics, such as bakelite paper or styrene. Unfortunately, styrene could not be cut with my small laser-cutter.
When proceeding to the
upper carriage, I noticed a couple of mistakes I made years ago,
when putting it together. Two of the transversal members were
installed at a wrong place. The wheels of the carriage would
have not touched the rails otherwise. When trying to rectify
this, the whole assembly gave, but luckily I managed to put it
back together without permanent damage.
Another issue also arose:
one should not work from drawings alone, particularly in a
project that streches so long as this one. It turned out that
the carriage was a couple of tenths of milimeters to narrow and
would not fit over the lower carriage with its guiding plates. I
should have properly verified this, when developing the parts
for the lower carriage. With a bit of bending and tweaking it
could be made to fit, but cobble-jobs like this leave parts
behind that are not as crisp as they should be.
Painting the gun barrel
turned out to be a major nightmare. I did not want to prime the
steel in order to not loose its metallic appearance. Usually,
acrylic paints dry so fast that there are not serious issues
with rust formation. When I first applied the first coat it
looked ok, but the next morning it had developed a mottled
appearance. The same phenomenon reappeared after each coat, but
somewhat less. I attributed it to the fact that the bottle of
paint was actually almost 25 years old and it had not been
sufficiently mixed. In the end I cleaned off the paint and began
again, but with the same result. Once more I took the paint off
and then sprayed it, but without agitating the bottle, thinking
that some of the pigment might have coagulated – same result.
Finally, I decided to lightly prime the barrel with
zapon-lacquer to isolate the steel. This forms a very thin and
virtually invisible layer. This did the trick, but the priming
was not done carefully enough and some spots were left bare –
with the result that those areas appeared mottled again. I tried
dipping, but this leaves a too thick layers in corners etc.
Eventually, I managed to obtain a reaonably even layer – one has
to work very fast and going over areas already treated is
virtually impossible due to the rapid drying. It is also very
difficult see, whether one has covered the whole surface. In
conclusion, I think the pigment of caput mortuum, which probably
is the mineral haematite (Fe3O4) has reacted with the steel
(Fe0) leading to the mottled appearance. However, I managed to
reproduce the appearance of the barrel of the demonstration
model in Copenhagen reasonably well, considering the small
A few of the flimsy and easy to break off details have not yet been installed and some levers to work the mechanisms still have to be fabricated.The close-up photographs also show a lot of dust and fluff that need to be cleaned and that the paintwork has to be touched up here and there.
|Shells in handling cradles||Powder
turning of the shell
drill, showing the cradle
||The finished ready-shells|
It not clear, how the heavy shells (weighing around 330 kg) were handled inside the ship and hoisted to the level of the barbette floor. The crane on the gun-carriage does not actually reach over the access-hatch to the shell-store through which the shells presumably were hoisted. The drawings are not clear on the various hatches in the barbette and over the shell-storage, because of various elments being hidden behind others and therefore not drawn. I will have to live with this ignorance.On the decks, the shells were wheeled around in trolleys. In the Rigsarkivet in Copenhagen a blue-print (in the true sense of the word) for such a trolley has survived. The trolly forms a cradle that can be hoisted by crane to the breech of the gun. At the rear of the gun two hooks are provided (not realised on the model) into which the cradle hooks. The shell then can be pushed into the gun with a rammer.
the raw bollard
|Mounting the raw bollard in the dividing
head on the milling machine
||Milling operations: first
squaring, then producing the waist
and part of working drawing
holes for the bases
the individual bases
stoppers and spill
the profile of the chain stopper
|Milling the slots on the lathe
||Milling bits and product
||Squaring the part on the upright
the rotary table
|Undercutting using a micro saw bit||Stoppers compared against a 5 Euro-Cent coin||Drilling
hole for the release lever
with stopper base plates (bottom left) and levers
and after stoppers (right column)
the sprocket, 1st step
|Milling the sprocket, 2nd step||Cutting with a forming tool
||Drilling the sprocket
sprocket in a jewel chuck
||Capstan head ready for cutting off|
head of the rollers by rotary milling
shaping the rollers using the geared dividing head
||Etched fret with capstan base plate (top left) and pawl (bottom centre)||Finished
telegraph drawings, original in the Norsk Maritimt
Museum, Oslo, and the two telegraphs on the model
A short while ago I discovered during a visit to Oslo in the Norsk Maritimt Museum a very similar telegraph on display. Unfortunately, the legend is not readable on my image. I seem to remember that the inventor or patentee was named. A search on the Internet and in my library did not produce anything, so I would be grateful, if anyone has an idea, who the inventor or patentee might have been.
The telegraph was redrawn
from the lithography in order to serve as a working drawing with
measures to guide the lathe operation.
The whole telegraph seems
to have been made from brass and accordingly the model was
turned from brass. The indicator arm and follower were made from
flattened brass wire and the ‘wooden’ handle built up from PVA
had two telegraphs, one for the starbord and port engine each,
of this early twin-screw naval vessel.
from the 1880s lithograph
drawings for the binnacles
the octogonal columns
||Milling the glass hood in
the shape of an octogonal pyramid
up after painting
parts of the binnacles
November 2019 - Binnacles. SMS WESPE was originally equipped with three binnacles, one on the bridge, the mother-compass on a sort of pole in front of the engine-room skylight, and the third one in front of the emergency steering-wheel at the stern. In the 1890s a fourth binnacle was installed on a platform atop the engine-room skylight, but is left off here. As SMS WESPE was built in 1876 the original binnacles lack the conspicuous compensation spheres, that were only invented in the 1880s by Lord Kelvin. Also other type of compensation gear is not visible on the lithographs and the earliest photograph. A photography of the early 1890s shows a much more substantial binnacle in front of the emergency steering-wheel, which preumably now houses the compensation gear and also sports the compensation spheres. Originally, the compasses must have been illumanted by petroleum lamps, but from the lithographs it is not clear, where these lamps would have been attached. At least there are exhaust funnels on top of the binnacles, which have disappeared in later photographs. This seems to indicated that electrical illumination might have been introduced, when a dynamo was installed on board in the early 1890s for a search-light.
For the model the individual binnacles were
redrawn from the lithograph in order to serve as a basis for
working sketch to guide the lathe- and mill-work. One needs to
keep in mind that the total height is somewhere between 10 and 15
The columns presumably were made from mahagony and were turned from brass rod before being transferred to dividing head on mill to cut the octogonal shape.
The actual compass was made, as usual, from brass and so on the model. Body and funnel did not provide a particular challenge, not considering the small size. To the contrary, the glass hood with its narrow frames of perhaps 15 mm width on the original. The body was roughly turned from Plexiglas and then transferred to the mill. Here the octogonal pyramid was milled. Using a 0.3 mm ball-head burr narrow grooves were cut into the edges and these grooves filled in with brass paint.
Once the paint had thoroughly dried, the faces were very lightly milled over, which resulted in sharp narrow brass strips at the edges. This is a technique that I copied from making engraved scales.
Originally I had the crazy idea of placing a miniature compass-card underneath the Plexiglas hoods, but even without it, assembling the binnacles was fiddly enough.
January 2020 - Steering-wheels.
All the boats had two sets of steering wheels, one on the bridge
and the emergency steering-wheels at the stern. Both stands had double
wheels that worked in the traditional way on drums and ropes.
There is a rather good photograph of the emergency steering
position, which allows to deduct the details of the wheels. On
the model these wheels are rather delicate affairs of only just
under 10 mm diameter overall. I had been considering many
different ideas for different kind of materials for fabricating
them. Machining the slender spokes seemed a daunting task.
Photo-etching and assembling them from different layers seemed a
more realistic proposition. It then appeared to me that
laser-cutting might be also an option, as I had recently
acquired a cheap, small machine.
After some tests with the
laser-cutter, I finally chose 120 g/m2 Canson-paper, which is
0.15 mm thick and has a smooth surface. It cuts well with the
laser-cutter, as it is not ballasted with inorganic material,
such as barytes. Some
trials were needed to determine the right cutting parameter
combination of contrast, laser-power and cutting depth. One
should assume that for a simple B/W-picture the contrast should
be 100%, but somehow changing the contrast setting changes the
width of the cuts. For this reason the final dimensions of the
parts depend on the contrast setting. Laser-cutting is contactless and the cut-out parts
are not moved during the cutting process. Therefore, it is
possible to cut them out completely and in contrast to the
photoetch-process they do not need to be attached to some frame. When designing the image with which the
laser-cutter works, one needs to consider all these factors that
sometimes can only be determined by trial and error.
The wheels are built up from five layers in order to simulate the joinery work and to arrive at the necessary 3D-rendering. The core part was thickened by two more layers, the outline of which was drawn a bit smaller to simulate the profiling of wheels and handles. A further layer on each side simulate the rim and hub. The individual layers were glued together with zapon-lacquer, which impregnates and stiffens the paper. Unlike many other glues, this lacquer only forms a very thin layer, not adding to the thickness of the wheel, and the parts can be adjusted, as long as the lacquer has not dried.
steering-wheels were re-enforced by brass-rings screwed onto
each face. My intention was to make these rings from real brass
shim (remember: only real metal looks like real metal ...).
However, I did not manage to cut so narrow rings from 0.05 mm
brass-shim. In the end, I bored out a piece of round brass stock
to 6.8 mm and turned down the outside to 7.2 mm. From this tube
with 0.3 mm wall thickness, slices of 0.1 mm thickness were
parted off. After a few trials to get the settings right, this
worked fast and repetable. The rings were deburred on 600 grit
wet-and-dry paper, ground finely on an Arkansas-stone and
polished on a piece of paper with some polishing compound. The
brass rings were glued on with lacquer.
The axle including drum for the steering rope were turned from brass. The wheels will be spray-painted painted all over and then the paint rubbed off from the brass rings. This will nicely simulate the rings let into the wood as per prototype.
||Laser-cut steering wheels||Components
||Steering-wheels and brass
||Gratings: JPG-mage as input for the laser-cutter||Steering-wheel pillars: JPG-mage as input for the laser-cutter||Machining the bearing caps in a ‘jewelling’ collet||Shaping the covering cap of the wheel-axle using a cup burr||Milling of the segment-shaped caps||Individual parts of the steering-stands||Steering-stand on the bridge loosely assembled|